Astrocytomas are a sort of most cancers of the mind. They originate in a selected type of glial cells, star-shaped mind cells within the cerebrum referred to as astrocytes. This sort of tumor doesn’t often unfold exterior the mind and spinal twine and it doesn’t often have an effect on different organs. *● Younger adults, mostly come up through the third and 4th many years
● Male predominance
● Website often supratentorial, however may be wherever in CNS. ● Median survival is 6-Eight years, however not often has fast development and loss of life. *these tumours often present blurring of the gross anatomical boundaries. There may be enlargement and distortion, however not destruction. *Astrocytomas within the base of the mind are extra widespread in younger individuals and account for roughly 75% of neuroepithelial tumors.
● Remedy: surgical procedure
#fever odor syndrome (trimethylaminuria) : #Trimethylaminuria is a dysfunction through which the physique is unable to interrupt down trimethylamine, a compound derived from the weight loss plan that has a powerful odor of rotting fish. *Fish odor syndrome (trimethylaminuria) is a genetic illness; signs are sometimes current from delivery.
*Fish odor syndrome is characterised by an offensive physique odor and the odor of rotting fish as a result of extreme excretion of trimethylaminuria (TMA) within the urine, sweat, and breath of affected people.
**Fish odor syndrome is attributable to mutations within the FMO3 gene.
*A fish-like physique odor might end result from an extra of sure proteins within the weight loss plan or from a rise in micro organism. *Trimethylaminuria is an unusual genetic dysfunction; its incidence is unknown. **Most circumstances of trimethylaminuria seem like inherited in an autosomal recessive sample. **Fish odor syndrome remedy consists of sure dietary restrictions, use of acid lotions and soaps to take away secreted trimethylamine on the pores and skin, use of activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin.
A stroke happens when the blood provide to a part of your mind is interrupted or severely decreased, depriving mind tissue of oxygen and vitamins. Inside minutes, mind cells start to die. *Strokes might be categorised into two main classes: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are these which might be resulting from interruption of the blood provide, whereas hemorrhagic strokes are those that are resulting from rupture of a blood vessel or an irregular vascular construction. *In an ischemic stroke, blood provide to a part of the mind is decreased, resulting in dysfunction of the mind tissue in that space. There are 4 the explanation why this would possibly occur:
1. Thrombosis (obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot forming regionally)
2. Embolism (obstruction resulting from an embolus from elsewhere within the physique, see beneath), three. Systemic hypoperfusion (normal lower in blood provide, e.g. in shock)
four. Venous thrombosis.
#Signs: *Bother with talking and understanding. *Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. *blurred or blackened imaginative and prescient in a single or each eyes. *headache. *Aspirin. Aspirin is a right away remedy given within the emergency room to cut back the chance of getting one other stroke. Aspirin prevents blood clots from forming.
*Intravenous injection of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). Some individuals can profit from an injection of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), additionally known as alteplase. An injection of TPA is normally given by way of a vein within the arm. This potent clot-busting drug must be given inside four.5 hours after stroke signs start if it is given within the vein. *Angioplasty and stents.
causes: ,berry” ,aneurysm.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) refers to bleeding inside the subarachnoid house, which is the world between the mind and the tissues that cowl the mind.
#causes: *SAH is said to mind aneurysms, that are abnormalities inside the mind’s arteries.
*The most typical reason for major SAH is a congenital “#berry” #aneurysm. *The principle symptom is a extreme headache, which is extra intense on the base of the cranium. *neck ache
*numbness all through your physique
A lumbar puncture is a diagnostic and at occasions therapeutic medical process. Diagnostically it’s used to gather cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to substantiate or exclude situations akin to meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage. *The process is often carried out beneath native anesthesia and aseptic approach. A needle is used to entry the subarachnoid house and fluid collected. Fluid could also be despatched for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological evaluation.
*A spinal needle is inserted between the lumbar vertebrae L3/L4, L4/L5 or L5/S1. *Precaution ~Age >65
~Current historical past of seizure
~Focal neurological indicators
~Irregular respiratory sample
Indicators and signs
The basic triad of bacterial meningitis consists of the next: ~#Fever
~#Neck stiffness. *Different signs can embrace nausea, vomiting, photalgia (photophobia), sleepiness, confusion, irritability, delirium, and coma. Sufferers with viral meningitis could have a historical past of previous systemic signs (eg, myalgias, fatigue, or anorexia).
Meningitis is an irritation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your mind and spinal wire. *The most typical reason for meningeal irritation is irritation attributable to bacterial or viral infections. *Bacterial meningitis
Quite a few strains of micro organism may cause acute bacterial meningitis. The most typical embody:
Haemophilus influenzae. *Viral meningitis: Viral meningitis is normally gentle and sometimes clears by itself. A gaggle of viruses often known as enteroviruses is answerable for most viral meningitis instances in america. These viruses are inclined to flow into in late summer season and early fall. Viruses reminiscent of herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps. *Fungal meningitis: Cryptococcal meningitis is a typical fungal type of the illness that impacts individuals with immune deficiencies.
The organs of the central nervous system (mind and spinal wire) are coated by three connective tissue layers collectively referred to as the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the CNS buildings), the arachnoid and the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges additionally assist blood vessels and include cerebrospinal fluid. *Dura mater: It consists of two layers: the endosteal layer, which lies closest to the calvaria (cranium), and the interior meningeal layer, which lies nearer to the mind. *The subarachnoid house is the house that usually exists between the arachnoid and the pia mater, which is stuffed with cerebrospinal fluid.
*HELLP syndrome is a gaggle of signs that happen in pregnant ladies who’ve:
H — hemolysis (the breakdown of purple blood cells)
EL — elevated liver enzymes
LP — low platelet depend
~Fatigue or feeling unwell
~Fluid retention and extra weight achieve
~Nausea and vomiting that continues to worsen
~Ache within the higher proper a part of the stomach
~Blurry imaginative and prescient
*HELLP syndrome happens in about 1 to 2 out of 1,000 pregnancies, and in 10-20% of pregnant ladies with extreme preeclampsia or eclampsia. *Most frequently #HELLP develops earlier than the being pregnant is 37 weeks alongside. Typically it develops within the week after the child is born. *The principle therapy is to ship the child as quickly as potential, even when the child is untimely. Issues with the liver and different problems of HELLP syndrome can rapidly worsen and be dangerous to each the mom and baby.